One group migrated to a place known as Lumoking and further to formed Pathso and Peshu ranges. Likewise another group migrated to Nokhu thangsoun and gradually went northward to form the present Thang and Wolam ranges. Whereas, one group who got settled at a place known as Shiadkhan and finally to form Nokhu range. Later on with the increase of population, migration to the further East started and eventually extended up to the Northern bank of Chuhoongan (Chindwin) river and beyond in Myanmar.
The Lotha Nagaland tribes practiced headhunting in the older days. After the arrival of Christianity, they gave up this practice. Lothas are renowned for their colorful dances and folk songs. The male members wear shawls indicating their social status. The prestigious social shawl for women is Opvuram and Longpensu for men. Lothatribe is one of the advanced tribe. Their main occupation is agriculture. They practice jhum and terrace cultivation. Lotha women weave clothes. Lotha men make handicraft.The Lothatribes are mostly found Wokha district of Nagaland.
The traditional Rengma clothing consists of various types of clothes, which are indicative of the status and position of the weavers. A man who has not been able to offer a great feast, or has never killed an enemy, may wear an ordinary type of cloth called rhikho. Rhikho is a white cloth with four narrow black bands. The number of black bands varies with the age of the wearer. Moyet tsu is another ordinary type of cloth, worn by the young men. It is a dark blue cloth with a very broad median band, and embroidered with a thin zigzag pattern in red at the edges. Alungtsu is a cloth for well-to-do men, who have not yet offered a great feast. Teri Phiketsu is a shawl, which requires the wearer to perform the head hunting ceremony.
Among the Naga tribes, a few are polygamous while others are monogamous. Marriage is usually a long procedure involving marriage brokers. The dowry sum is paid by the bride’s parents together with a small land being given to the couple to start a new life on. In other tribes, however, the couples may live with the parents of the groom. The brides are allowed to choose their husband in some tribes, while divorce and widow remarriage is common. However, the widow may not marry the family member of her deceased husband. In some tribes, where polygamy is allowed, the wife of one man might have to maintain conjugational relations with his brothers or immediate relatives on his command.
The arrows are very effective with pointed or iron-heads. Occasionally, the arrows are accurately balanced by fixing a few leaves or feathers in the slit at the rear ends.
The Pochury identity is of relatively recent origin. It is a composite tribe formed by three Naga communities: Kupo, Kuchu and Khuri. The word Pochury is an acronym formed by the names of three native villages of these tribes: Sapo, Kechuri and Khury. According to the Pochuri legends, these villages fought battles against each others, but united into a single tribe after their elders negotiated peace. Besides the three main communities, migrants belonging to the Sema, Sangtam and Rengma tribes have also been absorbed in the Pochury group.
The Aos are fond of red and blue colours and the Shangtams prefer embroidery work. Many tribes wear feathers and skins of birds and animals on their heads, ears and heads.
In the face of such resistance, the British officials in the region realized that it was difficult to subdue and pacify the Nagas solely through military means.
The habitat of Nagas is mountainous, characterized by elevated ridges, spurs and peaks of Naga and Patkoi hills which are a southward extension of the Himalayan folded mountain system. Barring a few hundred square kilometres of plains around Dimapur, the entire state of Nagaland is hilly and mountainous.
The economy of the Nagas which largely depends on shifting cultivation has been criticized on ecological and socio-economic grounds.
The Indian Chamber of Commerce has filed an application seeking registration of traditional Naga shawls made in Nagaland with the Geographical Registry of India for Geographical Indication.
Almost all the Naga tribes have their special handicrafts. They have developed great skill in bamboo work, wood work, black smithy and pottery-making. Bamboo is found in abundance in Nagaland.
Due to certain social disturbances the Sangtams could not continue to settle in this village and further splintered to two groups. One group migrated to the East and finally settled at Yangthrü(Thsinga) and the other group moved northwards and finally settled at Hurong village (now abandoned and located near New Tsadang village). (As per oral history handed down through generation)
Tradition is to be understood as the total heritage, beliefs, customs, styles and opinions-transmitted from one generation to another generation. The word tradition is derived from the Latin word “Tradire” which means to transfer or to deliver. Tradition has also been explained as ideas, principles, knowledge and usages transmitted from generation to generation over a long period of time. In other words, a tradition is embodied in habits, customs and norms which express the prevalent values and beliefs.
Every community or nation tries to fulfill this inherent desire of moving a step further than the surrounding neighbours—militarily, politically, economically and culturally. But, in the case of Nagas, these forces were very weak or not properly developed and a substitute has to be found.
Shifting cultivation, though rudimentary technique of land and forest resource utilization represents an intricate relationship between ecology, economy and society the jhum fields, their surrounding forests and the natural areas provide the two alternative sources of subsistence to the dependent population.
In the cool and moist climate of Nagaland, it gives additional heat to the body. Tobacco smoking in pipe is also universal among the Nagas. The local tobacco is quite strong which the Nagas consider the best. Occasionally, they also smoke opium in their long pipes. They produce their own poppy seeds in spite x>f the fact that the government had been trying to discourage its cultivation.
The general elevation of the state ranges from 914 metres to 3,840 metres above the sea level. The terrain is highly complex. The Barail Range, locally known as Radhura, enters the state from North-Cacher and passing through Kohima runs in the direction of Wokha. Japava which lies to the south of Kohima is the highest peak of Barail (Radhura) Range and attains a height of 3,804 metres above the sea level.